FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Washington Examiner:U.S. coal-fired power fell by record levels in 2019, a drop that was almost entirely responsible for the country’s 2.1% decline in greenhouse gases last year, according to preliminary data from the Rhodium Group, an independent research firm.2019 was a “really brutal year for coal, and that is driving the emissions reductions that we see,” said Hannah Pitt, a senior analyst with Rhodium who manages the group’s U.S. Climate Service.Coal-fired power declined 18% in 2019, according to the new research released Tuesday, in which Rhodium outlined preliminary emissions estimates for 2019. That puts U.S. coal generation at its lowest level since 1975.Those coal retirements had a “pretty sizable” impact on emissions levels, Pitt said. Rhodium’s preliminary estimates find U.S. power sector emissions down nearly 10%, a significant reversal from the sector’s 1.2% emissions bump in 2018.Rhodium estimates U.S. economy-wide emissions are 12.3% lower than in 2005. To reach the Obama-era Paris target, the United States would have to cut emissions between 2.8% and 3.2% each year for the next six years, a pace Pitt says is speedy but doable, though only with significantly more robust federal policy.“There are drivers in the power sector that are pushing lower-carbon options,” Pitt said, citing market trends such as cheap natural gas and falling renewable energy costs, as well as policies such as clean energy tax credits and state-level clean energy standards.[Abby Smith]More: ‘Brutal year for coal’ drives decline in US greenhouse gas emissions in 2019 Rhodium Group says U.S. coal-fired generation fell 18% in 2019, now at 1975 levels
Last week, scientists reported finding rocks made of plastic on a Hawaiian beach. Some researchers have speculated that these and other humanmade objects could become part of the fossil record, defining a human-dominated period of Earth’s history called the Anthropocene. Science chatted with Jan Zalasiewicz, a paleontologist at the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom and a leading scholar on the Anthropocene, about the kinds of things humans are leaving behind—and what they’ll look like millions of years hence.This interview has been edited for clarity and brevity.Q: You have called these humanmade fossils “technofossils.” What are they, and how are they different from normal fossils?Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)A: Technofossils are basically all the things we manufacture, large and small. Because most of them are preservable, they can potentially become fossils—particularly since, unlike nature, we’re so poor at recycling the things we make. They can survive for thousands, millions, perhaps billions of years in rock strata [rock or sediment layers] in the future. We think they deserve a separate category because there’s so much about them that is distinct.Q: What kinds of things can we expect to survive in the fossil record for millions of years, and what will they look like after all that time?A: Looking around at my room, I’m struggling to see anything that is not fossilizable. So let’s take my desk—wood can fossilize really quite well. We’ve helped along the process of fossilization of this wood because it’s been seasoned, dried out, and varnished. It’s much less edible than it was in its original state on the tree.With clothes, a lot of them are made from plastic polymer objects or cotton—plant materials. So they will fossilize just as plants do. They can preserve a good deal of the fabric. Under the right circumstances, one can preserve leaf cells and the like for millions of years—but the chemistry will change, they will become carbonized. You will lose the colors, and they’ll become black shapes.Even paper is fossilizable. Now clearly, if that makes it into a stratum, it will become a carbonized lump. Probably the information on the pages is not easily fossilizable. It would be very hard to read newsprint from pages.This computer I have in front of me, I see plastic, titanium, bits of rubber, a fair bit of this—if buried in the stratum—it will at least leave a nice oblong detail and impression, probably parts of the structure itself. But the information will be gone. Just as we can fossilize a songbird, it’s much harder to fossilize the song itself.Q: Are some cities more likely to preserve technofossils than others?A: In San Francisco, Earth’s crust is rising. It’s being eroded and the material is being washed away to areas where the crust is subsiding. So an upland place like San Francisco will be eroded, and the fragments will wash into the sea. Los Angeles and the northwest of Britain—Manchester, say—are also on long-term upward-moving crust. These are both also destined to be eroded away.New Orleans, in contrast, is on a delta. It’s on what’s called a tectonic escalator, going downwards because that’s what the crust is doing, and because it’s being loaded by all the sand and mud being washed off from the Mississippi River. New Orleans is ripe for fossilization, all of the structures, the pilings, the concrete pilings, tens of meters into the ground to keep the skyscrapers up. And all of the stuff that’s underground: pipework, sewage, the electric.Other places might be Amsterdam, Venice, Shanghai, coastal deltas on coastal plains. These places are ripe for fossilization.Q: What will future beings be able to infer about us from these fossils?A: The technofossils will strike them as quite different as anything that’s come before. We have the whole history we see through archaeology. Metals—Bronze [Age] first, then Iron and so on, different types of tools. And then we go into the Industrial Revolution and on to the space age and beyond.If you’re looking at the point of the perspective of the future paleontologist, either human or nonhuman or space visitor or hyperevolved rat or whatever, as a geologist one thing will strike them. [All of these artifacts] will be crammed into a very small physical space. The stratum itself may not be much more than a few meters thick. In many places, it may only be a few centimeters thick. It will probably appear instantaneous, and it will be very hard work to figure out the path of this hyperevolution of the technofossils within the human stratum.
WBC suspends Whyte’s status as interim world heavyweight champion Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Garin hits back at ex-DOH consultant saying allegations are questionable, baseless Indian coffee magnate’s body found by river Palace open to make Dengvaxia usable again as dengue cases spike Philippines ‘fires off’ diplomatic protest over Chinese vessels circling Pag-asa Island LATEST STORIES Dagupan church workers, parishioners back Villegas amid sedition raps Read Next London rated best city for students Bar test panel chairs for 2019, 2020 vow ‘very reasonable examination’ MOST READ PCSO to focus on improving transparency of gaming activities PLAY LIST 03:26PCSO to focus on improving transparency of gaming activities01:39Sotto open to discuss, listen to pros and cons of divorce bill06:02Senate to probe Tolentino’s ‘novel legal theories’ on oral agreements01:50Palace open to make Dengvaxia usable again as dengue cases spike01:49House seeks probe on ‘massive corruption’ in PCSO01:37PCSO estimates P250M in Lotto revenue loss due to suspension Senate to probe Tolentino’s ‘novel legal theories’ on oral agreements “Yes, there were quite a number of individuals invited,” he added. “Given his stature, he had to invite his colleagues, people in government, and more importantly, his constituents. But it was very simple in terms of program and menu. It was a very simple meal.”Alvarez, who prodded President Rodrigo Duterte to run for President in 2016, turned 60 last Jan. 10.FEATURED STORIESNEWSINFOBREAK: Suspension of Lotto operations lifted – PaneloNEWSINFODuterte to Cayetanos: ‘Kailan kaya matapos ang dynasty niyo?’NEWSINFOIndian family caught taking items from Bali hotel, sparking criticism onlineHe was criticized for reportedly holding a weeklong birthday celebration that was highlighted by Friday’s birthday party which some people considered extravagant amid calls from Duterte for government officials to live modest lives.Among those who graced the event were Duterte, who rendered a song, as well as several lawmakers and Cabinet members. Also present were Chinese Ambassador to the Philippines Zhao Jianhua and Russian Ambassador Igor Khovaev. /atmMORE STORIESnewsinfoPACC sets lifestyle check on PCSO board members, ex-GM BalutannewsinfoPalace open to make Dengvaxia usable again as dengue cases spikenewsinfoMartial law in Negros Oriental? AFP ‘studying situation’ on the groundMORE STORIESnewsinfoPACC sets lifestyle check on PCSO board members, ex-GM BalutannewsinfoPalace open to make Dengvaxia usable again as dengue cases spikenewsinfoMartial law in Negros Oriental? AFP ‘studying situation’ on the ground Presidential spokesperson Harry Roque holds a press briefing at the PIA office in Cebu City on Saturday, Jan. 13, 2018. (Photo from an RTVM video)CEBU CITY — Presidential spokesperson Harry Roque on Saturday downplayed claims that Speaker Pantaleon “Bebot” Alvarez had an “extravagant” weeklong birthday celebration.“I was in the birthday party of the Speaker,” Roque told reporters in an interview at the Philippine Information Agency in Cebu City on Satutday. “It was in the City Hall of Tagum. I don’t think it can be described as ma-garbo because he only availed of the physical facilities of the City Hall of Tagum.”ADVERTISEMENT View comments