GAO urges more scrutiny of antibiotic use in animals

first_imgJun 3, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – The General Accounting Office (GAO) has urged federal agencies to step up their efforts to determine if the use of certain antibiotics in animals endangers human health by making bacteria resistant to those antibiotics. However, the GAO said, the approved drugs reviewed so far are not the ones the FDA considers critically important to human health, and the reviews have taken at least 2 years to complete. “Therefore it may be some time before FDA completes its reviews of critically important drugs in order to determine if enforcement action to protect human health is warranted,” the report says. The agency recommends that the FDA accelerate its reviews of antibiotics that are used in animals and are important for human health. GAO report “Antibiotic Resistance: Federal Agencies Need to Better Focus Efforts to Address Risk to Humans from Antibiotic Use in Animals” The report also notes that the FDA has moved to bar the use of the fluoroquinoline antibiotic enrofloxacin in poultry because of evidence that fluoroquinoline use in animals has caused the transfer of resistant pathogens to humans. However, the drug has remained on the market the past 3 years because the manufacturer has challenged the FDA move. Concerning the need for data, the GAO says federal agencies have expanded their research on antibiotic resistance related to antibiotic use in animals, but it is too early to judge the effectiveness of their efforts to reduce the risk to human health. The FDA, CDC, and USDA have increased their surveillance and research on antibiotic resistance in animals and humans in recent years. The GAO, Congress’s investigative arm, spent a year preparing the report. It was requested by three senators—Olympia J. Snowe, R-Me.; Tom Harkin, D-Iowa; and Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass. In addition, the GAO said research on the human health risk is crippled by a lack of data on the types and amounts of antibiotics used in animals. The agency recommended that the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) work together to collect the needed information. The USDA and HHS, on reviewing a draft of the GAO report, generally agreed with it, the GAO says. HHS officials said that pharmaceutical companies have the most useful data on antibiotic use in animals. Current regulations would have to be revised to put the data that companies have to report to the FDA in a more useful format for research on antibiotic resistance, the officials said. Mar 18, 2004, CIDRAP News story, “FDA closer to banning enrofloxacin use in poultry” In a report released last week, the GAO said the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should speed up its risk assessments to determine whether it should restrict the use in animals of antibiotics considered critically important to human health.center_img “Although they have made some progress in monitoring antibiotic resistance, federal agencies do not collect the critical data on antibiotic use in animals that they need to support research on the human health risk,” the report states. In Denmark, collection of detailed data on antibiotics given to animals has enabled scientists to trace the effects on resistant bacteria in humans and to devise strategies to minimize the health risks, the GAO says. The agency recommends that the FDA and USDA together develop and implement a plan to collect the needed data. The report acknowledges that this will cost money but says it should not be excessively expensive, because existing FDA and USDA programs can provide a framework that can be expanded to begin gathering the information. However, the FDA “is not collecting data on antibiotic use in animals, and USDA’s data collection activities are limited to a few swine farms,” the report says. It suggests that the agencies gather information on the types and quantities of antibiotics sold for animals, the purpose of their use (disease treatment or growth promotion), and the species in which they are used. Many studies suggest that the use of antibiotics in animals poses risks to human health, but a few studies indicate that the health risks are minimal, the report says. The document notes that the FDA has laid out a “risk assessment framework” determining the human health risks. The agency is using the framework in reviewing both currently approved animal antibiotics and manufacturers’ applications for approval of new ones. See also: The United States differs from some of its key trading partners in the use of antibiotics in food animals, the report notes. While the United States and Canada allow some drugs that are important in human medicine to be used for growth promotion, the European Union and New Zealand have banned this practice. In addition, the EU plans to ban the use of any antibiotic for growth promotion by 2006. These policy differences have not significantly affected US meat exports so far, but that could change, the report says. The agency concluded that antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been transferred from animals to humans and that this transfer appears to pose significant risks to human health. Some studies have produced evidence of links between changes in antibiotic use in animals and bacterial resistance to antibiotics in humans. Further, genetic studies of bacteria have established that antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter and Salmonella are transferred from animals to humans, the report says.last_img read more

Clippers: 5 burning questions before 2018 training camp begins

first_img Clippers hope they can play to their capabilities, quell Mavericks’ momentum Media day on Monday will be slightly more useful than the crystal ball you’ve been using to try to predict the Clippers’ future, but until owner Steve Ballmer is bellowing from the sidelines at the regular-season opener against the Denver Nuggets on Oct. 17, there’s no real telling how it will go.For the pre-preseason anyway, optimism reigned. The “re-shaping” Clippers are healthy and determined to compete on the floor and in the free agency sweepstakes next summer, when they could have two max salaries to offer.The answers to the big, $50-some million question – who will be the Clippers’ headliners next season? – will have a lot to do with more immediate questions, such as …1. Will Jimmy Butler really get himself traded to the Clippers?Butler reportedly had Tom Thibodeau, the Minnesota Timberwolves’ president of basketball operations and coach, fly to L.A. last week so he could tell him he wants to be traded. Butler’s preferred destinations include the Brooklyn Nets, the New York Knicks and, most preferably, the Clippers, according to ESPN’s Adrian Wojnarowski. For Lakers’ LeBron James, Jacob Blake’s shooting is bigger issue than a big Game 4 victory Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error 3. Who are those players?With Wallace’s signing, the Clippers have 17 players for 15 roster spots, including veteran point guard Patrick Beverley, who has a $5 million non-guaranteed contract and is one of a “hundred” guards currently with the team, as Coach Doc Rivers joked last week.Their stockpile of guards entering training camp Tuesday in Hawaii includes Beverley, Wallace, Avery Bradley, Lou Williams, Shai Gilgeous-Alexander, Jerome Robinson, Milos Teodosic, Sindarius Thornwell and Juwan Evans.The Clippers must shed two players, either by cut or trade, by opening night. That’s a good thing, said Lawrence Frank, president of basketball operations: “Guys have to earn it, there’s great competition.”4. What about the young guards?How do first-round draft picks Gilgeous-Alexander (No. 11 overall) and Robinson (No. 13) fit in, especially with so many guards vying for playing time?Gilgeous-Alexander, a 6-foot-6 Canadian with a 6-11 wingspan and on-court savvy, is the Clippers’ most-heralded rookie since Blake Griffin nearly a decade ago. As a freshman at Kentucky, Gilgeous-Alexander averaged 14.4 points, 5.1 assists and 1.6 steals in 33.7 minutes per game. In the NBA’s summer league, he averaged 19 points, 4 assists and 2.3 steals.Robinson, meanwhile, has the respect of his first-year peers, who predicted in this year’s rookie survey that the Boston College product is the second-most likely player to have a successful career.“I love the young guys,” said Rivers, who gets to figure out how best to develop them.5. Is Tobias Harris a star?Sports Illustrated ranked Tobias Harris as the 65th best player in the NBA. Harris is betting that he’s better than that.Related Articles Clippers vs. Mavericks Game 5 playoff updates from NBA beat reporters center_img The combo forward reportedly declined a five-year, $80 million extension offer from the Clippers this summer, making him eligible to earn a max offer of $188 million over five years from the Clippers or $145 million over four years from another team as a free agent next summer.SI pointed out that Harris is not as “imposing,” “decorated” or “famous” as Blake Griffin, who was traded to Detroit last January in the transaction that brought Harris to L.A., where he averaged career highs in 3-point shooting percentage (.414), points per game (19.3), assists per game (3.1) and steals per game (1.2).This summer, he participated in the Team USA minicamp. This “pre-preseason,” as he and Clippers big man Boban Marjanović called the first episode of their new web series, “Bobi + Tobi,” he provided laughs. And when the season starts, the league will see whether he should be considered, and compensated like, a star. What the Clippers are saying the day after Luka Doncic’s game-winner tied series, 2-2 Kristaps Porzingis ruled out as Clippers, Mavericks set for Game 5; Follow for game updates Butler reportedly appreciates the Clippers’ ability to pair him with a second star. (Someone such as, say, new Toronto Raptor Kawhi Leonard?)Butler is one of the game’s elite two-way players, but the question is whether the Clippers want to trade for a player they could sign next offseason without surrendering assets? Also, how much should a team invest in a 29-year-old who’s had knee issues and has put on Thibodeau miles?Sign up for Home Turf and get exclusive stories every SoCal sports fan must read, sent daily. Subscribe here.2. Can the Clippers stay healthy?There isn’t an NBA team that doesn’t want its players available to play, but there wasn’t another NBA team last season that had to use 37 starting lineups last season.The Clippers had 11 players miss a combined 264 games because of injuries and still remained in playoff contention until the final few games and scored more points (8,937) last season than any other since the team moved to Los Angeles in 1984.What might be possible when the Clippers’ players are available to play?last_img read more


first_imgMET EIREANN has issued a double weather alert for County Donegal.A Yellow Status warning is in place until 3pm today, Friday.A second more serious Orange Status alert has been issued for Saturday, through until lunchtime on Sunday. Both storms will be accompanied by heavy rain, turning to sleet and snow on higher ground.Here are both warnings:STATUS ORANGEWind Warning for Munster, Connacht and Donegal An Atlantic storm depression will track to the northwest of the country later Friday night and Saturday.Southwest winds gusting 100 to 130 km/h, strongest across the Atlantic counties.Frequent heavy showers, some thundery with sleet and snow for a time mainly on higher ground.High coastal flood risk too due to the combination of very high spring tides, extremely high waves (greater than 10 m), low pressure and onshore winds – southwest, west and northwest margins most at threat.Issued:Thursday 30 January 2014 10:00 Valid:Saturday 01 February 2014 00:01 to Sunday 02 February 2014 01:00STATUS YELLOWWind Warning for Munster, Leinster, Connacht, Donegal, Monaghan and CavanSoutherly winds with mean speeds of 45 km/h will gust up to 85 km/h. Heavy falls of rain also especially in Connacht, Munster and Leinster, with falls of 25 to 40 mm expected, highest on higher ground in the southwest. Precipitation may initially fall as wet snow.Issued:Thursday 30 January 2014 10:00Valid:Friday 31 January 2014 03:00 to Friday 31 January 2014 15:00MET EIREANN ISSUES DOUBLE ALERT FOR NEXT 3 DAYS was last modified: January 31st, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:donegalMet Eireannrainsnowstorm warningsweather alertwindslast_img read more